Lovell was born March 25, 1928 in Cleveland, Ohio. He initially attended the University of Wisconsin for two years but was appointed to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, from which he graduated in 1952 with a Bachelor of Science degree. Becoming a naval aviator and test pilot, Lovell was selected as part of the second group of astronauts in 1962. A naval captain at the time of Apollo 13, he flew alongside Frank Borman in Gemini 7 and Buzz Aldrin in Gemini 12 before flying in Apollo 8 in 1968, the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon. Swigert was born on August 30, 1931 in Denver, Colorado. He earned a B. S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Colorado in 1953, later gaining a Master of Science degree in Aerospace Science from RPI in 1965, and in 1967 an MBA degree from the University of Hartford. He served in the Air Force and in state air national guards, and was an engineering test pilot prior to his selection as one of the fifth group of astronauts in 1966. Haise was born in Biloxi, Mississippi on November 14, 1933. He received a B. S. degree from the University of Oklahoma in 1959. He served in the Oklahoma Air National Guard and the United States Air Force, and was a civilian research pilot for NASA when he was selected alongside Swigert as a Group 5 astronaut.